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At the start of 2020, none of us could predict the situation that currently going through but by now in late October more of us starting look at what life will be like in the coming months and years ahead, most of us already know the question isn’t when things will get back normal but what will be the new normal look?. This pandemic also created deep distress, as some businesses struggle to stay afloat most Indian companies will see their revenue and profits getting impacted amid the pandemic. Digital is reshaping the workspace of the future and changing the nature of jobs that need to be done, we all must anticipate and prepare for this future of work to stay relevant and valuable and that starts by acquiring the right skills 

IT Industry in India employs a total number of 16 million people out of that 9 million peoples are employed in low-income scale and BPO jobs, Among these 30%  ie, 3 million people jobs are to be laid off by 2022 due to RPA, this is where RPA comes to play (ROBOTIC PROCESS AUTOMATION)

image 16

We might mistake it for something related to robots and all, but this has nothing to do with these robots or electronics, embedded and all. So many offices have these clerical works, such as reading or checking the status of mail, moving files from one location to other locations, or tasks like data entry where we have to manually type and enter the data or arranging files in a Google drive so these kinds of low-income jobs which anyone can do by just clicking these are the one are going to replace

So how are they going to be replaced?

Here comes RPA comes to play Robotic process automation it doesn’t mean that actual robots come in and click rather these are done by software robots, suppose a bill received the amount it holds is typed into another software it involves all these things there are many applications like these. So this is how we are going to solve all these with the help of RPA

RPA is a tool, all this tool helps to create an application which can perform these kinds of clerical jobs some are done through coding, some are UI controlled which are done by just clicking through it by using RPA there are different ways like this After clicking through this a new application is made if we run this application in a system or server we can see all these clerical jobs reading E-mails and all are done by the application. Just think about the application doing all these jobs people have to do taking 2 or 3 shifts if we put this application this can work from the morning to evening right? If we think like that the companies are going to replace 3 million that is almost 30 lakh employees by 2022.

At the same time 7 lakh RPA developers will be needed there since there is a need to build these tools to develop. Tools we don’t need to fully code them instead we use RPA tools quicker output so we can learn these types of tools and opt for jobs based on them, companies already hiring people based on these it is easier because it doesn’t involve much coding even if there is coding it is very less, so jobs like these will be created but old jobs like clerical and low-income scale jobs replaced. 

image 17

We know about high-income skills and low-income skills jobs, so what is a high-income skill job? Our value increases with an increase in time and experience, when it comes to low-income skills it depends upon how much a person can click around from morning to evening and there is a limit for that even if the person has 20 years or 30 years experience. These low-income skills jobs like data entry, reading, and sending emails are to a certain limit so this is a low-income skill to there is high-income skill jobs like coding designing, etc, you should understand that these replacements are not supposed to happen here. One thing you should note here is that 3 million jobs are lost and only 7 lakh people are getting replaced there are 23 lakh people left behind.

What they should do that?

They will have to upskill their job they will have to go into new fields like cloud development, DevOps, coding, or project management and attend training to continue working in the companies.

UP Skilling!! Different training companies working this field too, it’s very important to work there because when these many people lose their jobs they need to find new jobs so people always try and find a new job these people should pay attention to select high-income skill jobs the next time only then your value will increase, A job that requires creative skills will be valued more, In the coming days slowly all the jobs are going to be replaced starting with the low-income skill jobs so understand RPA very clearly it is not a robot it is an application likewise it is not any code it involves only replacing these kinds of clerical work so definitely will be lost in that section.

image 18

We know that if we have to chat about food delivery swiggy/zomoto now we have automated services that do not require customer care support. In earlier days we used to call customer care to solve such delivery issues but now we don’t have that, now everything is automated we can report the delivery issues by selecting food from the menu and it will enquire about your Oder issues all of which is automated so the customer care job also replaced now similarly you should clearly understand and analyze these changes that jobs are being replaced in our country

These people should upskill their skills and learn about these skills there are already many courses are available in RPA, RPA tools include mainly UI path, Blue Prism, Automation anywhere, PEGA, Work fusion, etc. there are many tools like which process automation is possible many include different scripts and languages some doesn’t have any coding included so different tools are different ways so you should consider that while choosing tools if you like coding can go for coding based one. So these people who expect job losses in the clerical field due to RPA do try and go for RPA tool related or other high-income skill jobs upgrade your skills asap, learn new thing so stop waiting your jobs are soon going to be replaced by the end of 2022. 

Author : Bibin P
Department : Industrial Automation
Linkedin : https://www.linkedin.com/in/bibin-p-839410174/

What is DevOps and how it would benefit an organization?



DevOps is the process of creating software through the collaboration and communication of software developers and IT professionals. DevOps stands for development and operation. Due to this, a single team would be able to do the development, testing, deployment, and operations of an application. DevOps has made the operations of software developers, quality assurance engineers, and system administrators simple and effective. Collaboration between the development and operation team is possible because of the DevOps. So while creating an application by the collaboration of the development sector, IT sector, and QC sector the quality of the end product would be really good.

Why DevOps is required in IT companies?

Before DevOps the operation process of an IT company was different all the departments were isolated. The testing and deployment process was isolated and because of this, the development of the application would require more time. The operating professionals in the testing, designing, and deploying section would spend a lot of time than the actual build cycles. The coding and operating team would also require additional time. We can use several DevOps tools to automate the software development phase.

  • DevOps would allow the companies to collaborate the people, process, and tools to focus a lot on the customers.
  • Shared responsibilities
  • Fast feedback
  • Repeatability
  • Automation – Infrastructure as a code
  • The quality and speed of the application delivery would improve a lot
  • Product delivery can be done at the proper time
  • The failure rate would be lowered
  • Data can be protected through critical layers of data security
  • Agility and stability of the critical business process can be increased

How DevOps toolchain can be utilized to build software?

  • Develop
  • Code review
  • Unit testing
  • Check-in
  • Build
  • Deployment
  • Functional testing
  • Security testing
  • Performance testing
  • Production setup and deployment
  • Maintenance and upgrades

What are the major roles and responsibilities of a DevOps Engineer?

DevOps engineers must work with software developers, system operators, and other IT staff to manage the code releases. DevOps engineers should have basic knowledge of the software development languages. DevOps engineers should be able to do the coding and must be capable to work with the development staff to determine the coding and scripting requirements.

Major responsibilities

  • Production and maintenance of software applications
  • Should solve the problems regarding the application and must be able to troubleshoot the system
  • Must be able to improve the quality and reduce the cost
  • Should be capable to analyze the design and evaluate the automation scripts

What is the difference between DevOps and traditional IT?

Traditional methodDevOps
The development team and the operating team would work separately to deploy the infrastructure properlyThe development and the operation team would work together and this would give proper visibility to the infrastructure requirement
Information regarding the failover, data center, redundancy, and storage is not properly available from the developers. Developers would have a lot of knowledge about the applicationAll the details about the failover, redundancy, data center locations, and storage requirements are properly known because of the inputs from the developers
The operation team won’t have any idea regarding the progress of the development team. The operating team would do their work without any collaboration from other departments.The operating team and the development team would work together and because of this, the operating team would be completely aware of the progress of the project.
After all the development process the application would be subjected to the load testing and this could crash the application and the release would be delayedWhile doing the load testing the development team rectifies all the problems and the application would be released on time
Traditional IT & DevOps

So there are a lot of advantages while using DevOps in the industry and without DevOps, there could loss of profit and time. Basically, we can describe DevOps as the collaboration of the development, testing, and operation team. So while creating any software the development team would interact with the operation and testing team and would create a proper plan to create the software with proper quality.

Who will benefit from DevOps certification?

  • Operation manager
  • System Administrator
  • Project managers
  • Business managers
  • Software programmer/ Application developer
  • Software tester
  • Business analyst
  • Network Administrator

How DevOps operation takes place?


In this stage, the development of the software would take place, so in this section, the development process would be separated into small cycles.


In this stage, the testing process would take place and the bugs would be fixed.


In this stage certain functionalities would be added to the codes and testing would take place. The development would be carried out by frequent integration and testing.


This is the deployment stage and in this stage, the code would be checked to determine that it won’t affect the website traffic.


In this stage, inappropriate system behavior would be checked.

DevOps workflow

In this stage there would be a visual overview of the sequence, it would also check the operation process.

What are the advantages of DevOps?

  • The failure rate would be heavily reduced
  • Reproducibility
  • Maintenance can be easily done
  • The proper delivery of the software on time
  • The quality of the applications can be improved
  • The risk would be reduced while creating the application
  • Cost efficiency
  • Working efficiency can be improved

How to start a career in DevOps?

DevOps are used not only in the IT sector it is also used in several other non-tech industries. Because of this, there are a lot of opportunities in this field. Starting a career in DevOps would require basic programming knowledge. Nowadays there are a lot of DevOps professionals and major companies would recruit professionals. If you are a certified professional then you would get a lot of opportunities. SMEClabs can help you with this, If you don’t have any basic software knowledge then we would train you for that. We would also provide placement assistance.

What is the difference between Azure and AWS?

Azure and AWS
Azure and AWS

What is Cloud computing?

Azure and AWS are the major cloud computing service providers. Cloud computing can be utilized to access and control several applications online. The term cloud represents the internet or network, cloud computing would allow us to share several computer resources such as networks, storage, servers, and applications. Distributed computing can be achieved by cloud computing, and in this several computers would be connected via a real-time communication network. We can run a program on several computers in a network by utilizing cloud computing. We would be able to access a lot of computing resources such as virtual machines, storage, and a lot more.

What is Azure?

Microsoft Azure

Azure is a cloud computing platform from Microsoft, and it is one of the leading cloud service providers in the world. The major requirement of cloud computing is the data centers and Azure has more than 200 data centers. This means that they can provide their service to many, so we can utilize this service from anywhere. One of the major reasons for the massive growth of this cloud platform is that we can utilize this cloud platform with other Microsoft solutions.

What are the major features of Azure?

  • We can create applications by using any programming language and while doing this we don’t need to worry about the hardware requirements because it would be taken care of by the azure.
  • Virtual machines can be created by using Azure and we can select the required, RAM, ROM, and operating system this is the major azure compute service.

Major Azure courses and fee structure

Azure coursesFee structure
Azure Administrator25000
Azure developer20000
Azure security Engineer22000
Azure AI Engineer30000
Azure Solution Architect25000
Azure course fee

Major customers of Microsoft Azure?

  • eBay
  • Boeing
  • Samsung
  • GE healthcare
  • BMW
  • Travelocity

What is AWS?


Amazon web service is a cloud computing platform. AWS is one of the major utilized cloud platforms globally. AWS can provide several services such as networking, storage, database, virtual computing, machine learning, AI, and a lot more. So AWS provides a lot of services and it will also provide good functionalities within these services. There are millions of AWS active customers and this is because of the AWS features. The major requirement for cloud computing would be data centers and AWS has a lot of data centers globally.

Major courses and fee structure of AWS?

AWS coursesFee structure
AWS-certified cloud practitioner25000
AWS-certified solution architect20000
AWS certified developer28000
AWS-certified advanced networking30000
AWS-certified cloud practitioner30000
AWS fee structure

Difference between Azure and AWS?

CustomersAzure doesn’t have many big customers as AWSAWS has big customers such as Netflix, Vodafone, etc
InfrastructureNot as good as AWSBetter than Azure
CostCheaper than AWSCostlier than Azure
Operating PlatformIt supports Linux but is not as good as AWS. It would support all of the Microsoft platformsSupports Linux and also it can be used on Microsoft platforms.
StorageBlob storage, backup, etcEBS, Gloacier, etc
FunctionalityBetter functionality than AWSLower functionality than Azure
Data centersLess than AWSMore than Azure
Transfer StabilityWhen compared to AWS the transfer stability is lowVery fewer data would be lost during the storage and transfer
Hybrid cloud systemAzure is open to a hybrid cloud systemAWS is less open to the private clouds when compared to azure
AWS VS Azure

In AWS data would be easily available and this data would be available in different zones globally, so the users would be able to store data easily. The data transfer stability of AWS is really good and AWS dominates azure in this sector. AWS can operate in windows and in non-windows platforms such as Linux etc. Several years before Azure didn’t support the Linux platform but now it supports the Linux operating system.

Why AWS is the leader in cloud computing?

The major competitor of AWS is Azure, because of the Azure, AWS has made a lot of improvements. AWS has increased its data centers to compete with Azure and also they have included a lot of features. They have created data centers in Asia. We can see AWS in most of the continents except Antarctica, AWS is implementing better services to keep up with their competitors. AWS has made its name by its customers, one of the major customers of AWS is the US defense intelligence agency.

  • You can build anything by utilizing the AWS cloud
  • Software listing is really vast when compared to the competitors
  • AWS Lambda would allow developers to run their code without the need for provisioning or managing servers
  • AWS has good security features
  • It would provide solutions really fast

Which cloud certification should you choose?

Right now AWS and Microsoft Azure is the leading cloud computing service provider. Currently, AWS is the leading cloud computing service provider, so choosing a career in AWS would make you future-ready. So if you are an AWS-certified professional then you would get a lot of cloud opportunities. AWS jobs are one of the highest-paying jobs in the world.

If you are planning to start your career in cloud computing then you can choose SMEClabs. You don’t need to have any coding experience to do this course. Business professionals and IT professionals also can also learn this course.

How Cloud computing would be useful to improve the business?

We can access several data and applications from anywhere by utilizing cloud computing. We could access several resources in a shared network to perform several operations according to the business requirements. So we can utilize many resources and can store a lot of data that can be utilized for the business. We can utilize the resources according to our requirement and thus cost can be reduced. Several applications can be developed and managed on this platform. There would also be a good backup and all these features would be really useful for business. In order to utilize software we don’t need to install it on our PC and due to this our business application would be mobile and accessible.

  • We can rent the computing power and data storage from some other data center
  • We can run over applications in someone else’s data center
  • We only need to pay for what you use
  • We can add a lot of resources and memory

What are the major advantages of cloud computing?

  • High speed
  • Cost reduction
  • Data back up
  • Good responsiveness
  • Good storage capacity
  • Reliability and mobility
  • Multi sharing
  • Software integration can be done Automatically
  • Machines can interact with cloud software
  • Global reach
  • Productivity can be increased

What are the disadvantages of cloud computing?

  • Performance would be varied
  • There could be a lot of technical issues
  • Downtime

How cyber security can help you to improve your business?

Cyber Security
Cyber Security

What is Cyber Security?

Cyber security can be described as a security standard and this standard can be utilized in an organization to reduce cyber attacks. These security standards can be utilized to protect the computers and networks, and also we can secure important data. Cyber security is really important for the security of several applications. We can say that the internet and several electronic devices have become an integral part of our life. Internet is widely used to transfer several data and we must make sure that the network is secured. We are utilizing the internet to transfer money, pay bills, and also for many other purposes.

Nowadays a lot of people are utilizing the internet and because of this, the security threats have increased a lot. Cybercrime is an important crime and many industries are being cyberattacked. Cyber security is really important and it would protect your data.

Why do we need cyber security?

  • Cyber security can prevent intentional and unintentional attacks
  • You could safeguard your data
  • If there is cyber security then there won’t be any complete shutdown
  • If there is no security for critical areas then there could be a lot of problems
  • We can secure the confidential data
  • It can be utilized for national security
  • Banking and financial data can be secured
  • We can keep the copyright data safe

What are the major cyber security strategies?

Network security

In this type of security, it would secure the computer network and if this network is not secured then it would create a lot of problems.

Application security

This type of security would secure the software and devices. If an application is not secured then the data won’t be protected.

Information security

This kind of security is required to protect the data. So in this, the data would be secured from unauthorized access

Internet security

This security can be described as browsing security.

Identity security

This type of security would secure the user and system information. This information is required to access several data.

Cloud security

This type of security is required to protect the cloud-based data, systems, and infrastructure.

Mobile security

This security is also called wireless security because it would provide security to smartphones, tablets, laptops, and also to other wireless devices.

End-user security

End-user is the person who utilizes software or hardware and this would be given to the end-user by developers. So if this user doesn’t have proper knowledge regarding cyber security then the software that he is working on would be compromised and there won’t be any security.

Cyber security in business
Cyber security in business

How to prevent cyber attacks?

Employee training

Employees should be trained in cyber security as we discussed earlier in the end-user security, employee training is really important.


Firewalls should be used with your internet connection, this would help you to achieve network security. A firewall would check the network traffic in an organization.

Anti virus

Antivirus and Antispyware software must be installed on every computer in your enterprise.

Network security

You should secure your Wifi network and must change the password regularly.

Protection against Spam Email

Most of the cyber-attacks are through email, so take proper security measures against this.

Wireless device security

Now cyber attacks can be done by utilizing smartphones, so you should be able to provide proper security to mobile devices.

Backup copies

You should make copies of your important data, so in case any of the data is lost then there won’t be any problem.

Why cyber security is required in business?

Most industries have been cyber-attacked and due to this, it is really important to protect our confidential data. Cyber attackers are mostly attacking the financial sector, so there are a lot of ways to implement cyber security in an organization. If your organization doesn’t have any cyber security then your company is not secure. Cyber security is really important for any type of industry.

What are the major types of cybercrime?

  • Hacking
  • Virus Dissemination
  • Software Piracy
  • Phishing
  • Spoofing
  • Cyber defamation
  • Cyber Stalking

How can you secure yourself from cyber-attacks?

  • Never keep any important data on portable devices
  • Utilize cryptic
  • Make sure that you have anti-virus, anti-spyware, and firewall protection on your computer
  • Make sure that you are not installing any unknown programs
  • Update regularly
  • You shouldn’t download anything from unauthorized sources
  • Encrypt to keep your data unreadable
  • Remote connectivity should be disabled

How can you investigate a cybercrime?

  • The IP address can be tracked
  • Web server logs can be analyzed
  • Email account tracking
  • Trying to find out the hidden data
  • Information about the attacker can be gathered by checking the camera, wiretaps

What are the advantages of Cyber security?

  • Your data and devices would be protected from hacks and virus
  • There would be an update every week for the cyber security application which is used on our PC.
  • The database would be updated every week by the security developers
  • Privacy for the users
  • Computer freezing and crashes can be reduced
  • Secured network
  • We can protect our hardware, software, and important data
  • Unauthorized access can be prevented

What are the disadvantages of cyber security?

  • It would be really difficult to set up the firewall
  • The system would be slower
  • Frequent Updation would be required to update the security
  • If the firewall is not configured properly then it would affect the usage of the internet

How to become a cyber security specialist?

  • You should take and pass the cyber security certification
  • You should complete the certified cyber security course from an authorized institution
  • If you are planning to start a career in cyber security then SMEClabs can help you. Cyber security is really important and it is utilized in the government and also in the private sector. Cyber security is required in most organizations so the opportunities in this sector are really high. So choosing a career in this sector can secure your career and also it is a highly paid job too. If you choose SMEClabs to start your career then you can become a certified professional and also you would be trained by professionals.

Will Artificial Intelligence destroy jobs?

artificial intelligence
artificial intelligence


Artificial intelligence is used to make intelligent machines and thus machines would be able to think and also would be capable of taking decisions. We can expect that in the future there could be a lot of robots if AI is utilized properly then it could be a good advantage to mankind. A system that is composed of Artificial intelligence would behave intelligently by checking the environment and taking proper actions based on that.

The AI-based system would be entirely software-based, it would have several features such as voice assistance, Image analysis software, face recognition, and search engines. We can add AI in hardware and due to this, there would be advanced robots, Automatically driven vehicles, etc.

Artificial intelligence is really complex we can describe it as the combination of Complex science and mathematics.

What could be the future of Artificial intelligence?

  • Transportation would be automated, and most vehicles would be self-driven
  • Robots can be used to help people in their homes
  • There are certain hazardous jobs such as working in skyscrapers, bomb diffusing, etc and all of these works can be handled by robots.

Will artificial intelligence increase unemployment?

Yes AI would replace many jobs but it also creates a lot of jobs too. Many workers would lose their job because of this, and workers from different industrial sectors would lose their job. But there would be a lot of opportunities in the software and robotic sector. The major impact would be in the human labor sector because in the industrial sector humans would be replaced by robots and other machinery.

So we can’t completely say that AI could cause unemployment, in one sector there is an advantage and on another side there are disadvantages.

Examples of Artificial Intelligence?

Robotic Process Automation

Automation is the process of making machinery operate automatically. So many robots are programmed for repetitive tasks and this has created much unemployment.

Machine learning

This is the field in which computers would get the ability to learn without being properly programmed. Deep learning is a part of machine learning.

Machine vision

It is the process of making a computer visualize by checking a lot of information using the camera. The machine vision can be improved by doing several programming.


What are the major sectors where we can use AI?

Healthcare sector

We can analyze a patient accurately by implementing AI in the medical sector and this would fasten several processes.

Business sector

Automatic robots are utilized in many industrial sectors and this would create a lot of profit in business. There are a lot of chatbots on many websites so it would give proper customer service.

Financial sector

We can utilize AI in the financial sector, AI can be used for personal financial applications. This would help to collect a lot of individual information and also could be used to give a lot of financial advice.

Cyber security

AI can be used for cyber security and this would secure your data.

Manufacturing sector

Robots are widely used in many industrial sectors and a lot of countries are utilizing intelligent robots in a lot of their application.

What are the advantages of AI?

  • AI can be utilized to improve the productivity
  • We can monitor a huge amount of data
  • Quality can be increased and there won’t be any human error
  • Profit can be increased and maintenance costs can be reduced
  • We can use AI for public services such as education, transportation, and government
  • We can utilize robots to do the mining process, they can also be used to explore the ocean floor and thus we can use AI robots to do the works which can’t be carried out by humans.
  • We can use AI for our daily life applications, such as self-driven vehicles and many financial sectors are utilizing artificial intelligence to manage their data
  • AI can be utilized to do the repetitive task so it can be utilized to do several industrial tasks
  • AI would be really beneficial for medical applications
  • We can continuously operate AI-based machines for several hours without any break
  • We can do predictive maintenance with the help of an AI-based system. Because the AI system would give proper reports if there is any problem in the operation and thus we can prevent the fault before it happens.

What are the disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence?

  • It can’t multitask
  • The initial cost of an AI system is really huge
  • Less creativity and imagination
  • It won’t be able to make a moral judgment
  • AI-based machines can only do tasks for which it is programmed for it won’t be able to make proper decisions in case of any unfamiliar situations
  • AI-based systems can’t improve themselves based on the experience and machines are not capable to change their responses to changing environments
  • There won’t be any creativity and imagination in the AI system
  • There would be a lot of unemployment because humans would be replaced by machines
  • Humans would utilize machines to do most of their work and because of that humans could become lazy and also would lose their creative power
  • If AI is on the wrong hand then it would be a huge threat to mankind
  • In case there are any cyber attacks, If the AI-based system is operating then the total decisions would be taken by the machines and this would be really impossible to handle this attack
  • In case of maintenance of the AI-based system then you would need to spend a lot of money

What are the major applications of AI systems?

It can be used for medical and educational purposes

Smart vehicles

Smart appliances

Logistics and transportation applications

AI can be used to do many security surveillance

AI can be used to decrease the environmental pollution

Energy usage can be reduced

AI can be utilized for cyber security

AI can be utilized in manufacturing industries

AI can be utilized for data analysis.

We can use robots for disaster management



What is data science?

Data science plays a major part in many companies, companies require a huge amount of data to carry out their day-to-day operations. These data would be used to carry out several operations. In data science, several technical tools would be utilized with the data for better understanding. These collected data would be used to carry out several business processes. Choosing the proper tool to analyze the data would be really useful to carry out the process very easily.

We can describe data science as an efficient way of data management, integration, analysis, interaction, and visualization of a huge amount of data. Several old data have been digitized and it will be utilized to do a lot of business processes. Data science has paved the way for a lot of innovations and also for digital education. Data science has created a revolution in the business and also in the educational sector. Data science can be utilized in every sector because every sector requires a lot of informational data.

Data science influences our daily life in different ways. Data science furnishes us with instruments and strategies to appreciate and dissect information. Data science is one of the quickest developing multidisciplinary fields that does the information procurement, examination, reconciliation, displaying, representation, and connection of a lot of information. Presently, every area of the economy creates a tremendous measure of information in an unstructured configuration. An immense measure of information is being accessed from different sources like web administrations, data sets, online storehouses, and so on. the significance test is to extricate significant knowledge data. Data science also does the preprocessing and separating of valuable data.

Data science
Data science

What are the skills required for a data scientist?

  • Must be able to determine the data structure
  • Analytical and computing skills
  • Should be able to apply statistical and mathematical methods
  • Must be able to process a large amount of data
  • Data analyzing and visualizing capability
  • Should have programming skills
  • Must be able to interpret and wrangle the data

Data science examples?

Social media

The major example of data science would be search engines and youtube. In search engines, if we start to type something then we would get several recommendations when the user types something. This recommendation is provided by the search engine by gathering a lot of data. While we are watching videos on youtube then, youtube would check what are all the videos we are watching and how much time are we spending on a particular video. They would also gather several details such as if we are watching a full video, or are skipping the video all these details would be gathered, and thus they would provide us several video suggestions based on the collected data.

Health care

In many health care sectors, a lot of data can be gathered for the future. In case a patient is admitted for a particular disease and these details would be stored. So in the future, if this person is again admitted then this data would be useful. Biometric sensors would gather a lot of data regarding a patient and this would be really useful.

Financial sector

Data Science would be really useful in the financial sector. A loan manager would be able to gather several details regarding the financial status of the loan applicant very easily by utilizing data science.

Data science in different sectors
Data science in different sectors

What are the major roles and responsibilities of the data scientist, data analyst, and data engineer?

Data scientist

A Data Scientist’s major job is to collect consumable data from organized and unstructured information with PC programming instruments and cycles. Their occupation additionally incorporates making a system and plans to introduce data to partners. They are additionally expected to keep up with data sets.

Data analyst

A Data Analyst has the obligation to convert the information gathered to recognizing patterns and making a prescient model in view of the information examined. One more basic obligation of a Data Analyst is to make an interpretation of discoveries into reports, which can be grasped by the administration, and assist them with precisely envisioning the conceivable result. They are likewise expected to keep up with data sets and information frameworks.

Data Engineer

Data Engineers are expected to concentrate on information, foster informational index processes, set up the prescient model, and assemble calculations through which partners can undoubtedly consume pure information. It might incorporate creating dashboards and reports that can be gotten to and utilized by all partners. Data Engineers should have abilities to have the option to figure out clients’ necessities and goals.

Why should you choose a career in data science?

Data science has a good future, there are several data science jobs globally. This job also provides an attractive salary and the job security of this job is really good. As we already know all the major business fields require data science and data science is widely used for health care and also for educational purposes. Most of the business sector has improved its productivity by utilizing data science. Data science is also called the most promising career.

Importance of data science
Importance of data science

What are the major sectors that utilize data science?

  • Finance
  • Academics
  • Health care
  • Digital services
  • Data products
  • Search Engines
  • Several social media platforms

How SMEClabs can help you to start a career in Data Science?

As we discussed earlier, data science is utilized in most industrial sectors. There are a lot of opportunities for data scientists worldwide. If you are planning to choose a career in data science then SMEClabs would be a great choice. You can choose the python data science course from SMEClabs and python is the best programming language for data science.

After completing this course from SMECLabs you would be able to solve any analytical problems. You would be able to analyze and interpret the data. Our trainers would provide you with a lot of projects and you would acquire a lot of skills from this. After completing this course we would provide proper assistance for placements and thus it would help you to get easily placed in MNCs.

Can Metaverse replace the internet?



Do you ever think about the advanced level of the internet? We can describe the metaverse as a virtual world, it is a network in which many people can interact virtually. We can define the metaverse as the shared digital world, people would react in the metaverse by utilizing virtual reality, augmented reality, and the internet.

Everyone would be able to make their own avatar for this and metaverse is also utilized for virtual games and can be used to complete several works. Metaverse is also known as science fiction or 3D internet. Some the companies such as Facebook, J P Morgan, and Gucci is utilizing this technology to improve their business.

So the metaverse is the advanced version of the internet where we are inside it. In the future metaverse would make a lot of changes in our life, but it comes really handy when we work from home. The growth of the metaverse has been activated by the pandemic due to the work-from-home situation. So the metaverse would be really useful during our work, we can describe the metaverse as the advanced internet

Many tech companies are spending a lot of money to develop hardware for the metaverse. So all of this could be a gateway to the metaverse we can expect the metaverse to act as a social media, it already allows interaction with others. Social media platforms are utilized worldwide and we can describe the metaverse as futuristic social media. We can interact with a lot of people and make our home as office or office as home with this. Metaverse also guarantees safety and security, if you don’t like to interact with others then you can easily stop your communication with them.


How metaverse can help you in your work?

Facebook has changed its company name to meta, and it’s their metaverse. Because of the pandemic, most of us are working from home and the major disadvantage of this is that there is very less interaction with our colleagues. So metaverse can solve this problem by creating a virtual office for you. You could make your small workspace your office, and you would be in a shared physical space. Metaverse could help you to work from anywhere and still would help you to interact with others. You can avoid your traveling time and make good utilization of time with the help of metaverse. So metaverse can be utilized to increase productivity.

How metaverse can reduce pollution?

So as we discussed above most of us are working from home and this is due to the pandemic situation. Metaverse can help you to attend a meeting from anywhere and interaction with your colleagues can be easily done through a metaverse. This would save the traveling time and we can say that metaverse can reduce the traffic and thus the pollution would be reduced.

How metaverse can be utilized for business?

We can use the metaverse in several sectors a 3D representation of the building can be done with the help of the metaverse. Metaverse can allow interactions with many people from different locations easily. So it would be really useful for office work and also for conducting business meetings. We can utilize metaverse to shop, buy things, own places, and a lot more.

Metaverse would be a lot useful for the real-world business. Many companies can virtually introduce their products to their customers and this would be a really good marketing strategy. In case you are providing the virtual representation of products then customers would be able to determine all of its features and quality and hence there would be a huge growth in the business. We are purchasing products by verifying their descriptions but if you are purchasing through metaverse then customers would be able to visit the virtual retail outlets and they can determine the product quality by using it in 3D before buying it.

So metaverse could be really useful in many businesses in the case of real estate you can show a 3D image of the property from anywhere to your clients. Metaverse would be very useful in the construction field too, many architects and several workers can work from anywhere in a project. The programming languages which is used to develop metaverse are Java, C++, Python, and rust

Creating working environment

You can create your own office structure in your home and also you can communicate with your colleagues in an easy manner. You would be able to add several apps to this, also you can conduct a meeting in a virtual room.

Virtual marketplace

We can also trade virtual goods with the help of metaverse.

What are the major advantages of metaverse?

  • We can easily conduct meetings, the disadvantage of the video conference is that there would be a lack of personal connection and this can be covered by the metaverse. Metaverse would almost give us the feeling that we are all sitting in the same room for a meeting.
  • Metaverse would be really useful for people who require special care
  • Metaverse can be used to treat certain people
  • Virtual currencies in the metaverse would make a change in the world economy and this can decrease the dependence on governments

What could be the challenges for the metaverse?

  • Metaverse could be handled by very few companies so due to this the power and influence could stay in the hands of a few people.
  • Government surveillance and control could increase if there is a tie-up with the companies.
  • Addiction to smartphones and social media is increasing day by day. So the chances of addiction to the virtual world would be really high. Most of the major things in the metaverse such as shopping, games, etc are addictive in nature.

How can you start your career in Metaverse?

As we all know our life is dependent upon several technologies, and the internet plays a major role in our life. We are using the internet to buy vegetables, clothes, transfer money, etc. So metaverse is a 3D internet and it would be utilized in several sectors in the future, gaming is just only the beginning of the metaverse. In the future, traverse could replace the internet, so if you are a person who is interested in advanced technology then you can choose a career in the metaverse.

If you are planning to start your career in metaverse then SMEClabs would be a good choice for you. You can do a Metaverse course from SMEClabs and secure your future. This course covers several topics such as Blockchain, virtual reality, Augmented reality, Artificial intelligence, mixed reality, and a lot more. You can learn metaverse from the basic to the advanced features and thus SMEClabs can make you future-ready.

Nondestructive testing in Civil Engineering (NDT in Civil)

Civil NDT


NDT in Civil, Nondestructive testing is widely used in many industries, this test is carried out in the civil industry. This test is also carried out in many other industries such as Electrical, mechanical, and a lot more. This test is done to determine the quality of the material or a structure without any damage to the material or structure. The major advantage of civil NDT testing is that it won’t make any changes or damages to the product or structure. So by conducting this test we can save money and also we can determine the quality of the structure.

We can consider civil NDT as the noninvasive type of test to determine the quality of the material, device, or structure. It is a kind of assessment that is done without making any changes in the component, device, or structure in which the testing is being conducted. By doing this test we can do the quality control of the construction site, we can detect if there is any fault in the building or in any other structure.

These tests can be done really quickly and easily and it is really economical. This test would provide proper data and Nondestructive testing is an internationally accepted testing procedure.NDT testing is required in Civil, there are different types of NDT testing and also there are three levels of NDT certification. NDT is used in different sectors

Why Nondestructive testing is required in the Civil sector?

Nondestructive testing plays a major role in our daily life. The roads that we travel and the buildings that we stay and the way of transportation like bus, train, or boat everything requires nondestructive testing. So if we are not able to determine the quality of the structure then it can lead to many dangerous results. If we are not able to find out the faults at the proper time then it could cost several lives too. So due to this Civil NDT plays a major role in our life.

We can determine the faults such as cracks, or inclusions in welds, or if there are any changes in the structural properties by doing the NDT. This test can be done in a cost-effective way and also we can determine the reliability of the product or the structure. We can prevent accidents by this test and thus protection of human life and the environment can be easily done.

How civil NDT test would be useful to determine the quality of a structure?

  • This testing method would be able to test the actual structure
  • We can do the NDT tests in several locations in a structure
  • The quality and life of the structure can be determined
  • We can test the structure in various stress conditions
  • Damages and cracks can be easily determined
  • Changes in concrete and other materials can be determined because of the frequent testing
  • We can determine the overall stability of the structure
  • Stress locations can be easily determined
  • During this test, we can determine if there is any damage due to chemical attack, fire, aging, etc.

What is the major role of a Civil NDT technician?

  • NDT technician must be capable enough to test the structure according to the procedure to determine the quality of the structure
  • NDT technicians must do the inspection of duties and should create reports based on the inspection
  • Make sure that the equipment which is used to do the testing is operating properly or not
  • NDT technicians must be able to complete the job according to the budget
  • NDT technicians must be able to do all the inspections

What are the major job opportunities for a Civil NDT professional?

  • QA QC Engineer
  • QA QC supervisor
  • Manufacturing
  • Equipment inspectors
  • Quality control Engineer
  • QA Executive

If you are a certified NDT professional then you would get a lot of opportunities globally. There are a lot of job opportunities in the oil and gas sector, the construction field, etc. If you have good skills in this job then you would get easily placed in major MNCs. The salary package of the civil NDT would range from 40000 to 250000/month. So based on your experience and skills this could vary.

What are the different levels of NDT competence?

NDT level 1

If someone is NDT level 1 certified then that person would be able to carry out the testing procedure according to the supervision of level 2 and level 3 personnel. The level 1 certified personnel would be capable to set up the NDT equipment, Conducting the test, classification of the test results, etc. This person won’t select the test method or the assessment of the test results.

NDT Level 2

An NDT Level 2 certified professional would be capable to perform the tests. This personnel would choose the testing method and also set up the equipment. Must be able to supervise the tests and also should be capable to evaluate the result according to the standards.

NDT level 3

NDT level 3 certified professional should be capable to do any kind of NDT test. This person would be entirely responsible for the testing and should be able to provide proper instructions for the testing. Must be able to supervise everything related to the NDT testing. This person would be able to give proper guidance to all personnel at different levels.

What are the different types of Civil NDT testing?

Rebound method

This test is conducted to determine the strength and hardness of the structure. This test is based on the principle that the rebound of the elastic mass is dependent on the hardness of the structure that it hits. So during this test, a plunger of the hammer would be pressed strongly and steadily against the structure till the spring-loaded mass would be triggered from the locked position. This device would rebound according to the hardness of the concrete, and the rebound distance would be checked to determine the strength of the structure.

NDT in Civil

Penetration resistance test

This test is also called as Windsor probe test, in this test the strength of the concrete would be determined by penetrating a metal rod into the concrete structure. A specified power would be given to the metal rod for the penetration and by the depth of penetration, the strength of the structure would be determined.

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test

The operating principle of this test is based on the fact that the velocity of the sound in the solid material is dependent on the density of the solid material. The equipment would generate some pulses of vibration at an ultrasonic frequency. Then the time taken by the pulse to travel the concrete structure is determined.


Radiographic testing

In this type of testing, Gamma rays would be transmitted to the concrete structure. The strength of the structure can be determined by the penetration index of the ray.

Pull out test

In this test, a rod would be cast into concrete to a specified range of depth. So the force which is required to pull out the metal rod is calculated to determine the strength of the concrete.

What is the need for Nondestructive testing?

  • We can determine the strength of a structure
  • The density of the structure can be determined
  • Strength can be determined
  • We can also determine if there is any damage to the structure
  • Surface absorption can be determined
  • Surface hardness can be determined
  • By doing this test we can evaluate the work quality

What are the major fields where NDT is used?

  • Civil
  • Electrical
  • Mechanical
  • Aerospace
  • Medical field
  • Manufacturing sectors
  • Security

How to secure your career?

If you are planning to start a career in NDT then you should be a certified professional, because major companies are looking for skillful certified professionals. You can choose SMEClabs to start your career in NDT. After completing this course you would be able to do the Civil NDT tests and you would be internationally certified too. We have many experienced professionals to train you so you can acquire a lot of skills from them.

Importance of control valve in an industrial control system?



The major components of the industrial control system would be actuators, control valves, Sensors, etc. We can describe the control valve as the final control element of a control system. The major process variables in an industrial process are temperature, pressure, level, and flow. So the process variable should be kept in a specified range for the proper operation.

The control valve would open or change the direction of flow based on the signal which is received from the controllers.

The controllers in a control system would compare the process variable to the set point. If the process variable is not similar to the set point, then the controller would send a signal to make the process variable similar to the set point. The sensors in the control system would check the process variable and give the details to the controller.

Control valve
Control valve in industrial process

What are the major parts of a control valve?

The control valve is composed of two major components they are valve body and diaphragm actuator. The valve body consists of the bonnet, valve plug, and seat ring, and it also has trim parts. Bonnet would be assembled to the valve body with bolts, nuts, etc, to provide pressure. The valve plug in the valve body would be moved up and down by the actuator through the valve stem.

Diaphragm & Stem

This Is a flexible element that is responsive to pressure and functions to transmit the diaphragm plate force and stem.

Diaphragm plate

concentric plate with a diaphragm to transmit the force to the actuator stem.

Actuator spring

This is a spring or a combination of several springs that are in the yoke that functions to move the actuator stem in the opposite direction to the diaphragm pressure.

Actuator stem

This is the part that connects the actuator to the valve stem and transmits motion from the actuator to the valve.

Spring adjuster

This is the part that functions to regulate the compression of the spring, usually in the form of a thread on the actuator or yoke stem.


This is a rigid, immovable part that serves as a support and connection to the valve actuator unit.

How does a control valve work?

The operation of the control valve is done by the actuator and the positioner. The actuator is the part that is utilized to open or close a valve. The positioner in the control valve would determine the exact position of the valve and it would help the valve to reach its proper position by applying proper pressure to the actuator diaphragm. The controller would send the control signal and based on this signal the valve position would be varied.

Operation of the control valve
Control valve operation

What are the major functions of a control valve?

  • It would be able to start and stop the flow
  • The speed of the flow can be controlled
  • Flow direction can be controlled
  • Pressure regulation can be done by controlling the flow
  • It would be able to reduce the pressure in a pipeline

What are the major requirements of a control valve?

  • It should be able to keep the process fluid inside it without any leakage
  • Should be able to handle the proper capacity of the fluid which is required for the process
  • Should be able to handle the process fluid without any erosion or corrosion
  • It must be able to handle the temperature of the process fluid
  • Must be able to connect with the pipelines

How should we select a control valve?

  • Make sure that the selected valve is capable to operate properly in the service
  • Select the valve according to the required type of trim
  • Noise and cavitation levels must be considered
  • The size of the trim and the valve body must be checked
  • Determine if this valve can be used in hazardous areas
  • You should consider the type of actuator
  • Check if the valve is fire safe
  • Stroke time must be considered

What are all the tests that must be conducted in a control valve?

  • Valve body testing
  • The closing and opening times of the control valve must be checked
  • Positioner testing must be done
  • Seat leakage must be checked
  • Accuracy and repeatability of the positioner
  • Conduct a partial stroke test in the control valve

Installation of the control valve

Prior to installation, make sure that scales, welding chips, or some other unfamiliar materials have been cleared out of the cycle line to which the control valve is to be connected. While installing the control valve guarantee the interaction of liquid stream heading coordinates with the stream course demonstrated on the associating spines of the valve body. Install the control valve, in a position such a place that its actuator is situated vertically. Make sure that there are no edges of the gaskets associated with the line extruder into the cycle pipe. Ensure the chosen gasket material is appropriate for the interaction liquid.

Mostly the control valve is the final process control in a system. So if this device is not installed properly then it won’t be able to do the proper control of the process. While installing a control valve we should make sure that it has proper space for the safe operation and maintenance of the valve. Control valves should not be installed in a place where there is vibration and external stress because it can badly affect the operation of the control valve.

It would be good if there is support for the valve so that the piping won’t be affected by the weight of the valve. If a control valve is installed to handle flammable fluids then it must not be installed near hot pumps or with any other flammable equipment. It should be installed in an environment in which it can handle the temperature and pressure so that the control valve would operate properly.

How should we inspect a control valve?

The control valve should be inspected periodically because it is the final control element in a system. So if it’s not operating properly then it could affect the whole process.

  • Make sure there is no leak from the diaphragm
  • Make sure that there is no leakage of process fluid from the bonnet and flanges
  • Make sure that the yoke clamp bolt is tightened
  • Make sure that there is no air leak from the air piping and also in the actuator
  • Make sure that the valve lift is proper
  • Make sure that there is no sound or vibration from the control valve during its operation
  • Make sure that there is no damage to the valve stem and the actuator stem

How SMEClabs can help you to start a career in instrumentation?

If you are planning to start a career in instrumentation, then you can choose SMEClabs. Most industries are looking for certified professionals so you must be certified to get placed. So if you complete the instrumentation course from SMEClabs then you would be internationally certified. You would also be trained by experienced professionals so you would acquire a lot of skills from them.

What is an oil rig and how does it operate?

oil rig
oil rig


Certain energy sources are nonrenewable and one of them is oil, oil rig plays a major role in our global economy. Crude oil can be seen in different parts of the earth and a huge amount of oil is located under the sea. Onshore drilling is a lot easier when compared to offshore drilling but as we know major oil source is located in offshore so offshore drilling is necessary. Oil and gas would contribute almost fifty-five percent of the world energy requirement. Our global economy mostly depended on crude oil.

What is an Oil rig?

A rig can be described as equipment or a machine that is capable of drilling a wellbore. An oil rig is created by the process of drilling and inserting a tube through the earth’s surface and this could be on the land or at sea. A huge percentage of oil is located offshore and due to this offshore rig is important. The oil source in the sea is really vast when compared to the land.

We can define an oil rig as a production plant that is used to drill the oil wells and natural gas extraction wells. A rig can be considered as a temporary structure because if the oil source is reduced in the rig location, then it would be relocated to other locations.

The equipment of the offshore and onshore rigs would be the same. There are different types of offshore rigs and these rigs are selected according to the depth of the water.

What are the types of drilling rigs?

There are two major types of drilling rigs they are marine rigs and land rigs.

Marine rigs (offshore)

The rigs that are used to drill on the water are called marine rigs.

Land rigs (onshore)

The rig which is used to drill on land is called the land rig

Types of marine rigs

Bottom supported rigs

In this type of rig, the rig would be situated on the seafloor or on the pads which are supported on the seafloor.

Floating rigs

In this type of marine rig, the drilling process would take place when the rig is in the floating position.

Barge mounted rigs

in this type of marine rig, the drilling rig would be mounted on a barge.

oil rig3

How Oil rig selection is done?

  • Geologists would plan and choose the proper location for the well, it would be done by a seismic survey.
  • The exact location of the well on the land will be spotted, in the case of offshore rigs, the coordinate of the well location would be spotted.
  • Well site preparation
  • Water depth would be measured and also the seabed soil condition would be checked too
  • Drilling engineers would choose the rig
  • The contractors would determine the required size of the rig, they would also determine the rig weight, power requirement of the rig, load handling capability, and drilling fluid volumes.

Major factors that should be considered while selecting a rig

  • Water depth rating
  • The capacity of the rig, bulk capacity, liquid, and mud mixing capacity
  • Rig size
  • Rough water stability
  • Required time to finish the drilling process
  • Type of drilling
  • Cost

What are the major steps involved in the oil drilling process?

  • To determine the reservoir volume the operator would drill wells
  • Move the drilling rig to well
  • The drill pipe would be lowered with the help of the drill bit and thus creating a hole in the seafloor
  • Large pipes would be installed by the rig in the wellbore in order to separate the wellbore
  • A smaller casing would be added to protect the wellbore from the pressure and also form the wellbore surrounding

What do upstream and downstream refer to in the oil rig?


In the oil and gas sector, the upstream refers to several processes from determining the rig position and also from drilling to the transmission of the oil.


Downstream refers to the work which is done in the refinery such as cracking, distillation, reforming, blending, storage, mixing, and shipping.

oil rig2

What are the major components of an oil rig?

  • Engine – The engine would provide the required power for the drilling mechanism
  • Drill pipe – It is a steel rod that is designed according to the depth of the well and it would activate the drill bit
  • Drill bit – This is the part that makes contact with the ground and it would make a hole in the ground
  • Mud pump – It would move the mud in the rig
  • Kelly – It is a rod that is connected to the drill and the kelly would help to achieve the rotation.
  • Derrik – It is used to hold the pipes
  • Swivel – this would be connected to the kelly and this equipment would put the mud to the drill pipe to cool the bit.

Required crew, to operate a rig?

  • Driller
  • Rig supervisor
  • Toolpusher
  • Mechanics and electrician
  • Derrik man
  • Crane operator
  • Floor men
  • Roughnecks
  • Motormen

How does an oil rig operate?

An oil well is created by drilling a hole in the earth with the help of a drill rig. After a hole is drilled steel pipes would be introduced to the borehole and it would be placed in the hole. Cement would be added to the casing and also to the borehole and thus structural integrity can be achieved and thus pressure zones can be separated.

The drill bit would be connected to the drill collar and the drill collar would apply certain pressure to the bit so that it can cut into rocks. Mud will be removed from the drill and there will be oil-based mud and water-based mud will be utilized to do the drilling process. Well casing plays an important part in the rig this is composed of several metal tubes and the well-casing would be installed in the drill hole.

Well, casing ensures that there won’t be any spillage of oil or gas through the well-hole. The oil and gas would be brought to the surface and thus it would prevent the loss.

How to get a job in the oil and gas sector?

As we know the need for oil is increasing day by day. There are a lot of oil rigs and also major rigs are looking for experienced professionals with good skills. In order to get selected you should be a certified professional with good skills.

SMEClabs would help you to be a certified professional. If you are planning to start a career in oil & gas then you should do a certified course in oil and gas. If you complete the oil and gas course from the SMEClabs then you would be able to learn a lot about refinery operations, Nondestructive testing, rig operations, and a lot more. You can acquire a lot of industrial skills because we provide good practical sections and also you would be trained by experienced professionals.

Difference between AC and DC

Difference between AC and DC
Difference between AC and DC


Difference between AC and DC, in order to know their difference we should know about current. We can describe the current as the flow of charge and this flow of charge is due to the flow of electrons. Electrons and Ions are charged particles and it would move through a conductor the measurement is done based on the rate of flow of charged particles through this section. In order to achieve this flow, we should give a force to it and this force is called voltage.

The electric pressure that causes the flow of current in a circuit is called a voltage. The measurement of current is done in ampere, there should be a voltage to attain the current flow.

The current that flows in a single direction is called a direct current or DC. In the case of the alternating current, it is different, the polarity of the alternating current varies a lot and due to this the direction of the current flow would vary too. This is the major difference between AC and DC. An example of a DC source would be the battery, in this, the electron would travel from negative to positive.

AC = Current/voltage = Varies

DC = Current/voltage = No variation

The power source in our home is AC. In this, the positive and negative polarity would vary really quickly. In an AC source, the power would vary from maximum to minimum, and Vice versa, it would also change the polarity during the flow. During the flow of alternating current, there would be positive and negative sections. In the alternating current, there will be maximum and minimum cycles and this cycle would take place really quickly.

In an AC current, a cycle is composed of a negative and positive half cycle. The AC current frequency is calculated by this cycle per second. If we connect a bulb to an AC supply with a frequency of 50Hz then the bulb would flicker according to this frequency.

AC 2

What is direct current?

A battery would be a source of DC current and it has positive and negative terminals. Direct current won’t change its direction or polarity, in case you need to connect a device to DC then we should check the polarity. In case you are connecting a device to an AC supply then you don’t need to care about this polarity. In DC there would be a constant electron flow and the electron would flow from a high mass section to a low mass section. We can not easily vary the voltage of the direct current like the alternating current. This is the major disadvantage of the direct current.

How AC & DC power is generated?

Mostly the DC source is created by chemical reactions and another source would be solar panels. So both these methods are really costly when compared to the AC power generation. DC power is required for some electronic devices and that’s when DC comes in handy. Direct current is required for some complex circuits that use microchips and that’s why mobile phones and computers are using DC supply. This complex circuit requires a constant source of voltage and current and this can be provided by the DC. So now we know why the complex and the intelligent devices are powered by the DC supply.

The AC power would be generated by using the wind, water, nuclear power, etc. In India, AC power is mostly generated by using coal and other methods are hydro and wind. So while using water and air to generate the power the flow of water and air is used to rotate a turbine which would be connected to a generator. So AC power generation is not as expensive as DC, we can easily convert the AC power supply to DC by using diodes. But converting the direct current to an Alternating current is an expensive process. We can use inverters to do this conversion but it is only possible for a small amount of current.

How do DC devices operate in an AC supply?

Most electronic devices are utilizing the direct current. A device that has a battery in order to charge and act as a power source would be an electronic device. The DC devices such as smartphones and laptops consist of an AC adaptor that would convert the alternating current to a direct current.

Difference between AC and DC

Always changes the polarityThere won’t be any change in polarity
Alternating current has a frequencyThere is no frequency for the direct current
Efficient for transmissionNot that much efficient as AC
There would be variations in voltage and currentIn DC there won’t be any variation in current and voltage
The generation and distribution of the AC power are really simpleWe can’t easily generate and distribute the DC
Less costlyDC is costly when compared to AC
AC voltage is created by the turbine generator, nuclear power, and also by the windmillsDC is generated by solar panels and also by certain chemical reaction
AC generators are mostly the source of AC powerBattery and solar power supplies are examples of DC power supply
AC vs DC
AC 3

Is it possible to store alternating current in batteries?

No, we won’t be able to store AC current in batteries. A battery would store charge according to the chemical reaction. If we try to connect a battery to an AC source then there won’t be any supply of power it is because of the variation in the polarity.

What are the major advantages of the Alternating current over the direct current?

  • Generation and transmission of the DC power is very much costlier than the AC
  • While transmitting the DC over a long distance the transmission losses would be high
  • In order to transmit the DC the width of the transmission cables must be increased
  • The conversion of AC to DC is really simple it can be done with the help of a rectifier
  • We can increase or decrease the voltage of an alternating current by using step up or step down transformers
  • Mostly DC power is used for low power applications like charging a mobile phone, power bank, laptops, etc.

Explain why Direct current is not used in our homes?

The efficiency of AC current is really good when compared to DC. We can’t transmit the direct current over long distances. In order to do the transmission of power high voltage is required, the reason for using the high voltage is to reduce the transmission loss. So while doing the power transmission you need to increase and decrease the voltage level and this can be easily done for AC. We can easily step up and step down the voltage level in AC. While the DC current is constant and if we need to do the DC transmission then we should use transmission cables with more width and this would be really costly.


Both these power sources are required in our daily life, almost all the electronic gadgets are operating in DC. The power which is supplied to our home from the substation is AC we have a lot of electrical appliances that work on AC. In industrial sectors both AC and DC would be utilized, the distribution panel would be powered by the AC but complex circuits in the industrial control system would be powered by DC.